Vitamins play a major role in the body, they act as coenzymes, protein synthesis and cell differentiations, reproduction and growth, maintainance of the body cells, nerves and receptors, reproduction They also assist in the absorption of some other nutrients, they also function as antioxidants and enable secretion and stimulations of some enzymes. Vitamins acts as functional foods.
FUNCTIONS OF VITAMINS
Vision; maintenance of cornea, epithelial cells, mucous membranes, skin; bone and tooth growth; reproduction; immunity.
All of vitamin act as Part of coenzyme for TTP, NAD, A, PLP, FNM, of energy metabolism, fat synthesis and amino acid metabolism in their various division; Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Pantothenic acid, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12.
Non B vitamin: Choline
Needed for the synthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and the phospholipid lecithin.
Collagen synthesis, antioxidant, thyroxin synthesis, amino acid metabolism, strengthens resistance to infection, helps in absorption of iron
Mineralization of bones
Synthesis of blood-clotting proteins and bone proteins
DEFICIENCIES (SYMPTOMS) OF SOME VITAMINS
The consequences of deficiencies are so dire, and the effects of restoring the needed vitamins so dramatic, that people spend billions of dollars every year in the belief that vitamin pills will cure a host of ailments. They include:
Symptoms include, Sore throat; cracks and redness at corners of mouth;
a. painful, smooth, purplish red tongue;
b.inflammation characterized by skin lesions covered with greasy scales
Biotin: Depression, lethargy, hallucinations, numb or tingling sensation in the arms and legs; red, scaly rash around the eyes, nose, and mouth; hair loss
Niacin: pellagra (disease), dementia.
Symptoms include: Diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting; inflamed, swollen, smooth, bright red tongue;a depression, apathy, fatigue, loss of memory headache; bilateral symmetrical rash on areas exposed to sunlight
Pantothenic acid: Vomiting, nausea, stomach cramps; insomnia, fatigue, depression, irritability, restlessness, apathy; hypoglycemia, increased sensitivity to insulin; numbness, muscle cramps, inability to walk
Beta-carotene: spinach and other dark leafy greens; broccoli, deep orange fruits (apricots, cantaloupe) and vegetables (squash, carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin)
Shellfish, leafy green vegetables, seeds, potatoes and other starchy vegetables, legumes, noncitrus fruits, fortified cereals, soy product, chicken, beef, potatoes, oats, tomatoes, broccoli, egg yolks, soybeans, fish; also produced by GI bacteria(biotin), eggs, meat, poultry, fish, nuts and all protein-containing foods, Milk products (yogurt, cheese), liver, Whole-grain, fortified, or enriched grain products; moderate amounts in all nutritious food; pork.
Note: Thiamin, folate and pantothenic are easily destroyed in heat and oxygen, caution needs to be taken.
Non B Vitamin: Choline
Milk, liver, eggs, peanuts.
Fruits, cabbage-type vegetables (such as brussels sprouts and cauliflower), dark green vegetables (such as bell peppers and broccoli), cantaloupe, strawberries, lettuce, tomatoes, potatoes, papayas, mangoes. Easily destroyed by heat and oxygen
Significant Sources include: Synthesized in the body with the help of sunlight; fortified milk, margarine, butter, juices, cereals, and chocolate mixes; veal, beef, egg yolks, liver, fatty fish (herring, salmon, sardines).
Other sources include;
Synthesized in the body with the help of sunlight; fortified milk, margarine, butter, juices, cereals, and chocolate mixes; veal, beef, egg yolks, liver, fatty fish (herring, salmon, sardines) and their oils
Bacterial synthesis in the digestive tract;a liver; leafy green vegetables, cabbage-type vegetables; milk.
TOXICITY OF VITAMINS
Niacin: Painful flush, hives, and rash (“niacin flush”); nausea and vomiting; liver damage, impaired glucose tolerance
B6: Depression, fatigue, irritability, headaches, nerve damage causing numbness and muscle weakness leading to an inability to walk and convulsions; skin lesions
Non vitamin B(Choline): Body odor, sweating, salivation, reduced growth rate, low blood pressure,
Vitamin C: Nausea, abdominal cramps, diarrhea; headache, fatigue, insomnia; hot flashes, rashes; interference with medical tests, aggravation of gout symptoms, urinary tract problems, kidney stones
MINIMIZING VITAMIN LOSS
To minimize the oxidation of vitamins, store fruits and vegetables that have been cut in airtight wrappers, and store juices that have been opened in closed containers (and refrigerate them).
To prevent losses during washing, rinse fruits and vegetables before cutting.
To minimize losses during cooking, use a microwave oven or steam vegetables in a small amount of water. Add vegetables after water has come to a boil. Use the cooking water in mixed dishes such as casseroles and soups. Avoid high temperatures and long cooking times.
S.R. Rolfes, K. Pinna and E. Whitney. Understanding Normal and Clinical Nutrition, 8th edition (2009): 270-277. Publisher: Yolanda Cossio, Canada. ISBN-13: 978-0-495-55646-6, ISBN-10: 0-495-55646-7.
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